Pakistan was renamed in the Constitution of 1956 to The Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Pakistan name was coined by Choudhary Rahmat Ali (1893-1951) in 1933 using the suffix “istan” from Baluchistan preceded by the initial letters of Punjab, Afghanistan, and Kashmir. The word Pakistan also means holy, Sacred, Clean, Free and Independent in Urdu, Punjabi and Persian languages. Pakistan is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north.
Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy. The growth poles of the Pakistani economy are situated along the Indus River. Diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centers coexist with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country. Despite being a very poor country in 1947, Pakistan's economic growth rate has been better than the global average during the subsequent four decades, but imprudent policies led to a slowdown in the late 1990s.
Main resources for Pakistan include land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone. Recently, wide-ranging economic reforms have resulted in a stronger economic outlook and accelerated growth especially in the manufacturing and financial services sectors.
The estimated population of Pakistan in 2011 was 187,342,721making it the world's sixth most-populous country, behind Brazil and ahead of Bangladesh. It is expected that by 2030, Pakistan will overtake Indonesia as the largest Muslim country in the world. The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. By population size, Karachi is the largest city of Pakistan. About 20% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.
Life expectancy at birth is 67.9 years for females and 64.18 years for males. During 1990–2003, Pakistan sustained its historical lead as the most urbanized nation in South Asia, with city dwellers making up 36% of its population. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis now reside in towns of 5,000 people or more.
Pakistan is a multilingual country with more than sixty languages being spoken. English is the official language of Pakistan and used in official business, government, and legal contracts, and Punjabi has a plurality of native speakers.
The country faces challenging problems including terrorism, poverty, illiteracy and corruption.
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